Tewkesbury (United Kingdom)
|Location: Tewkesbury, United Kingdom|
Universite catholique de Louvain, Healthnet TPO
|Tewkesbury, United Kingdom:|
|The second MICRODIS survey site in UK is Gloucestershire, a county in south west England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dean.
The county town is the city of Gloucester, and other principal towns include Cheltenham, Stroud, Cirencester, and Tewkesbury. The MICRODIS study will focus on the town of Tewkesbury.
|The district of Tewkesbury has a population of 76,405 while the town itself has a population of 2,550 (1,205 male; 1,345 female) living in 1,353 households, with the majority (81%) living in 1- and 2-person households (Table 44).
Household Sizes in Tewkesbury
Source: 2001 census
Types of Dwellings in Tewkesbury
Source: 2001 census
891 of the dwellings in Tewkesbury are privately owned, while 423 properties are rented and 39 occupiers live rent-free.
The population density of Tewkesbury is 13.21 persons/hectare (district density: 1.84).
|Tewkesbury is a town in Gloucestershire, England. It gives its name to the Borough of Tewkesbury, of which the town is the second largest settlement. The town is part of the Severn River Basin District, the third largest in England and Wales with an area of 21,590 km2 (Environment Agency, 2008). The town itself occupies an area of 1.8 km2, with much of the area comprising of ‘greenspace’ (1.3 km2) and domestic gardens (0.1 km2). The area of water within the town is 0.07 km2 (73,770 m2).
The Severn is the longest river in Britain with a length of 280 km, while the river Avon, one of the main tributaries of the Severn, is 185 km long. Tewkesbury is situated at the junction of these two rivers and part of a broad flat floodplain valley (Figure 34) with very little woodland.
The predominant soil strata are composed of Jurassic Lower Lias clays (EA, 2008), i.e. heavy soils with impeded drainage and naturally high groundwater levels (Fox, undated). Annual rainfall is similar to the UK average and normally lies between 575 and 576 mm (based on 1941-1970 data) with most of the precipitation occurring in autumn and winter (EA, 2008).
The Severn below and above Tewkesbury is heavily modified with weirs, culverts, bank reinforcements and embankments (EA, 2008).
Tewkesbury has a well-preserved medieval character and is of considerable historical and conservation interest.
|The district of Tewkesbury has an average annual income of 26,953 GBP (GMB, 2005), well in excess of the English average of 22,400 GBP (South West Observatory, undated) and is one of the wealthier regions of the UK.
The area around Tewkesbury is predominated by high-grade arable land and managed grassland pasture.
The area is popular with tourists due to its rural character and picturesque villages and market towns. Recreational activities in and around Tewkesbury include walking, bird watching, navigating the rivers and canals in small boats, canoeing, rowing and fishing. Thus, tourism is a major source of income and employment in Tewkesbury.
conomic activity and industries of employment are presented in Tables 46 and 47.
Economic activity in Tewkesbury
Source: 2001 census
Industry of employment
Source: 2001 census
Most people are working within a 20 km radius of Tewkesbury town (1,130 persons; 87 percent of working population) and 95 percent of households own at least one car or van.
|There are three doctors’ surgeries and a small 49-bed NHS-run community hospital in Tewkesbury. Specialist doctors and larger hospitals are accessible in nearby Cheltenham and Gloucester.
Of the inhabitants of Tewkesbury in 2001, 1,717 reported to be in good and 599 to be in fairly good health; 234 people described their health as not good, including 484 people who reported that they suffered from a long-term limiting illness, 312 (65%) of which were pensioners. It was found that long-term limiting illnesses were more prevalent in people with no central heating and no access to a car.
Overall, the population of Gloucestershire enjoys an above-average health performance compared to the wider region and the rest of the UK (Gloucestershire County Council, 2005). Life expectancy at birth for Gloucestershire is 77.3 years for men and 81.6 years for women, above the national average of 75.9 years and 80.6 years (Gloucestershire County Council, 2005).
In Gloucestershire, the leading causes of premature deaths over the past ten years were cancer (36.7%) and circulatory disease (33.7%). Respiratory disease, the third main cause for premature deaths in the county, was responsible for 8.4 percent of all premature deaths over the same period (Gloucestershire County Council, 2005). Just over 50 percent of premature deaths occurred between the ages of 65 - 74.
|There are six schools, both primary and secondary, located directly in the town of Tewkesbury. Three of these schools are local authority schools, including one school for children with learning difficulties. Many more schools and nurseries/kindergartens are accessible to the population of Tewkesbury in the wider surrounding area, particularly the nearby cities of Gloucester and Cheltenham.
|Religious affiliations of the population at both survey sites are summarised in Table 48.
Religious affiliations of the population
Source: 2001 census
|English is the main language in Tewkesbury.
|Ethnicity of the population at both survey sites is summarised in Table 49.
Ethnic Composition of Survey Sites
Source: 2001 census
|Flooding is the only major disaster risk in Tewkesbury, and the Severn catchment has a long and well-documented history of flooding (EA, 2008). Tidal effects of the river Severn are usually confined to the stretch of river up to Gloucester and only reach Tewkesbury in unusual circumstances (EA, 2008).
Tewkesbury is situated at the Avon and Severn confluence and has thus always been prone to fluvial flooding due to its position on the main fluvial floodplain and the potential contribution of two separate river catchments to flooding events. There are 1,800 people in 800 households situated directly on the floodplain in the Tewkesbury district (Gloucestershire County Council, 2007).
Prior to the severe 2007 flood there have been five other recent major flooding events within the catchment (February 2004, February 2002, Autumn 2000, October 1998 and Easter 1998). However, Tewkesbury town itself was only affected by the flooding in autumn 2000, which had been the largest flooding event on record in the lower Severn catchment before 2007 (EA, 2008).
The first recorded flood in Tewkesbury was in 1484 and since then the town has experienced flooding events approximately every 30-50 years. The largest flood level of historic flooding events (records from 1862-1990) was recorded in 1947, triggered by warm rain falling on snow (EA, 2008).
The Social Flood Vulnerability Index (SFVI) for Tewkesbury is very low (EA, 2008) and people in this town are assumed to be better able to respond to and recover from flooding events than in more deprived and/or urban areas of the catchment.
The district of Tewkesbury received 80-90 mm of rain on the 20 July, which amounts to almost two months rainfall in just one day and caused severe flooding of the town (EA, 2008). A water level of 12.93 metres above sea level was recorded at the river Severn on the 23rd of July, 2007 (previously the highest recorded level was 12.80 in March 1947). The main events are summarised in Table 50.
Summary of July floods in Tewkesbury
Source: EA, 2008
1,500 buildings were flooded in Tewkesbury by both flash and fluvial flooding (Stuart-Menteth, 2007).
|2001 census data available online: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/default.asp accessed: 22.09.2008
BBC (2007) The summer floods: What happened [online] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7446721.stm accessed: 08.09.08
Dodov B. (2008) Assessing Flood Risk: A Hydrological Overview of the July UK Floods [online]
Environment Agency (2008) Managing Flood Risk: River Severn Catchment Flood Management Plan, Consultation Draft Plan May 2008, Environment Agency, Bristol
Fox S. (undated) Letter to Cllr V. Smith re increased flooding risk in Tewkesbury and environs [online] http://www.nacra-tewkesbury.org.uk/Influence_of_soils_&_topography_-_letter%5B1%5D%20ammended.pdf accessed: 23.09.2008
Gloucestershire County Council (2005) Health Needs and Care Provisions in Gloucestershire, Environment Research Team, Gloucestershire County Council, Gloucester
Gloucestershire County Council (2007) Demography of floodplain in Gloucestershire Gloucestershire County Council, Gloucester
Gloucestershire County Council (2008) Gloucestershire Population Monitor 2006, Gloucestershire County Council, Gloucester
GMB – Britain’s General Union (2005) First time buyers and low paid priced out of home ownership in 39 southwest areas [online] http://www.gmb.org.uk/shared_asp_files/uploadedfiles/D014776E-529B-4459-B4CB-2F06EC84806F_Housingsw.pdf accessed: 27.09.2008
South West Observatory (undated) State of the South West: Income, Expenditure and Wealth [online] http://www.swo.org.uk/SoSW2007/web/section_229.html accessed: 27.09.2008
Stuart-Menteth A. (2007) UK Summer 2007 Floods Risk Management Solutions Ltd., London Witts D.A., Smith V. (2008) Building on the floodplain is misguided (a proof of evidence): a study of Tewkesbury [online] http://www.floodforum.org.uk/communitygroups/groupupdates/Severn%20and%20Avon%20Combined%20Flood%20Group%20Report%202008.pdf
Flooded streets of Tewkesbury's Newtown Enumerator looking for households in Tewkesbury Residents brave the flooded streets in Tewkesbury